Book 14 Critical Thinking and the Chronological Quran in the Life of Prophet Muhammad


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Year 14 of the Revelation Muharram 1-Dhu al-Hijja 29, 1 AH ca. July 16, 622 CE-July 4, 623 CE The Lessons in Book Year 1 through Book Year 24, including Book Year 14 presented here, are numbered consecutively in order of the revelation of a Quranic Chapter. Each Lesson begins with a critical thinking (furqan) standard, strategy or Quranic moral trait. It is important to note that when learning HOW to think, which the Quran teaches, there is no specifically correct answer. It is going through the process of Quranic understanding that we learn HOW to think. In addition, Quranic signs or verses (ayat) of each section (ruku) in a particular Quranic chapter are given in each lesson followed by a well-known Commentary, a Student Assessment and questions or assignments in Developing Quranic Critical Thinking Skills. An Appendix correlates the original Quranic chapters with their chronological order for easy reference. The Preview in Books 14 to 24, which cover his years in Madinah, presents a month by month summary of the history and life of the Prophet during that year of revelation including reference to his Campaigns, Battles, Sieges in Madinah and the surrounding areas, the Patrols that he commanded his Companions to undertake, his marriages, the birth and early death of his son, the death of his other children and the birth of his grandchildren in the relevant year. All of the Lessons in Book Year 14 explore the revelation of Chapter 2: The Cow (al-Baqarah), which is the 87th Chapter revealed and the first chapter revealed in Madinah. The Prelude in Book Year 14 includes the detailed story of his migration from Makkah to Madinah, which marks the first year of the Islamic calendar so it is referred to as 1 AH (after the hegira or migration), as well as the first Friday prayer, the formation of the Community (umma) and Brotherhood between the Emigrants and the Helpers, the Madinah Constitution, the Quranic signs giving the Prophet permission to fight to defend the Community and the beginnings of hypocrisy within the Community, while the Preview contains a month by month history of where the Prophet was during this year. The chronological order of the chapters of the Quran that follow throughout the series is based on the list accepted by al-Azhar University in Cairo and is considered to be the official order. It differs greatly from the chronological order developed by Western scholars over the centuries and is much more detailed.


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